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New York City History: Citation

In the tab names, SS stands for Secondary Source, PS stands for Primary Source

Research Tips


*Use your NoodleTools account to create your Works Cited list.

*Select the Chicago Citation Style and Advanced.

*For help with your account, please ask Ms. Crow or Ms. Kane.

Scholarly Responsibility:

When you do research, you should always remember that it is your responsibility as a scholar to give proper credit to the sources you use. A source is any book, web site. article, film, image or document you use in the course of your research. If you use someone else's ideas without telling the reader where you got the information, you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism is a very serious form of academic dishonesty, and you must always take the greatest care to avoid it. To avoid plagiarism, simply provide documentation for any idea or facts that you found as part of your research. Documenting your sources also allows anyone who reviews your project to locate and verify your sources.

- Crow, Suzanne, "Guide to Writing Citations," The Spence School, last modified August 8, 2014, accessed September 25, 2014,

Places to get help online:

Chicago Documentation Style by Diana Hacker: A quick overview of how to cite different sources in a bibliography and a footnote

Chicago Manual of Style - Purdue University Online Writing Lab: An excellent resource for citation information and research help. 

Chicago Manual of StyleOnline edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Provides examples for obscure sources.

Can I use the citations made by the database I am using?

Generally we find that information given within databases is misleading and their examples are routinely wrong. Databases often provide a "source citation" at the bottom of the article. Although these source citations provide useful data (e.g., title of the database, authors, etc.), spend the time to review them thoroughly and compare them to the style guide examples before simply copying and pasting those examples into your source list.

From the NoodeTools Help Desk

What is a stable URL?

The web address displayed in your browser's address bar is not always stable.  Sometimes it includes code that makes the reading accessible on your workstation for a short period of time.  You can see if a web address is stable by opening a different browser than the one you were using (e.g. Firefox instead of Chrome) and testing the web address you created.  If it doesn't work, there are extra steps that you can try:

Look for a stable web address on the article/resource web page. Often there is a link that allows you to bookmark or jumpstart the article or email a link. If you cannot find a stable URL use the Database # associated with the item. This can be found in the bottom portion of the page near the citation information. Use the DOI (Digitial Object Identifier) for the article.

University of Washington Libraries. “Creating Stable Links to Journal Articles.” University Libraries, University of Washington. Accessed October 2, 2015.


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What Should You Cite?

You should write down every source that gives you information for your project. For this project, your sources will likely include: 

1) Print books

2) Encyclopedia articles, both from Spence Library databases and from printed books.

3) Magazine articles, print or online

4) Websites

5) Images from websites